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Push Endpoint Reference

The Push Endpoint applies batches of mutations to the server.

For more information, see How Replicache Works — Push.


Specify the URL with the pushURL constructor option:

const rep = new Replicache({
// ...
pushURL: '/replicache-push',


Replicache always fetches the push endpoint using HTTP POST:

POST /replicache-push HTTP/2

Request Headers

Replicache sends the following HTTP request headers with push requests:

Content-type: application/json
Authorization: <auth>
X-Replicache-RequestID: <request-id>


Always application/json.


This is a string that should be used to authorize the user. It is prudent to also verify that the clientID passed in the PushRequest in fact belongs to that user. If not, and users' clientIDs are somehow visible, a user could push mutations on behalf of another user.

The auth token is set by defining auth.


The request ID is useful for debugging. It is of the form <clientid>-<sessionid>-<request count>. The request count enables one to find the request following or preceeding a given request. The sessionid scopes the request count, ensuring the request id is probabilistically unique across restarts (which is good enough).

This header is useful when looking at logs to get a sense of how a client got to its current state.

HTTP Request Body

When pushing we POST an HTTP request with a JSON encoded body.

type PushRequest = {
pushVersion: 1;
clientGroupID: string;
mutations: Mutation[];
profileID: string;
schemaVersion: string;

type Mutation = {
clientID: string;
id: number;
name: string;
args: ReadonlyJSONValue;
timestamp: number;


Version of the type Replicache uses for the request body. The current version is 1.


The clientGroupID of the requesting Replicache client group.


An array of mutations to be applied to the server, each having:

  • clientID: The ID of the client within the group that created the mutation.
  • id: A sequential per-client unsigned integer. Each mutation will have an ID exactly one greater than the previous one in the list.
  • name: The name of the mutator that was invoked (e.g., from Replicache.mutate).
  • args: The arguments that were passed to the mutator.
  • timestamp: The DOMHighResTimeStamp from the source client when the mutation was initially run. This field is not currently used by the protocol.


The profileID of the requesting Replicache instance. All clients within a browser profile share the same profileID.


This is something that you control and should identify the schema of your client view. This ensures that you are sending data of the correct type so that the client can correctly handle the data.

The schemaVersion can be set in the ReplicacheOptions when creating your instance of Replicache.

HTTP Response

HTTP Response Status

  • 200 for success
  • 401 for auth error — Replicache will reauthenticate using getAuth if available
  • All other status codes are considered to be errors

Replicache will exponentially back off sending pushes in the case of both network level and HTTP level errors.

HTTP Response Body

The response body to the push endpoint is ignored.


Unknown Client IDs

The first time a client pushes or pulls, it will have no client record on the server.

These client records could be created in either the push or pull handlers (or both), but we recommend the push handler for a few reasons:

  • The pull handler can be read-only which enables useful optimizations and safety measures in many databases.
  • The push handler is called less frequently so it makes sense to put the write lock there.
  • Having all the writes in the push handler makes reasoning about the system easier.

See Remote Mutations for an example implementation.

Mutation Status

The server marks indicates that mutation was applied by returning a lastMutationID in the PullResponse greater than or equal to its mutation id.

Replicache will continue retrying a mutation until the server marks the mutation processed in this way.

Mutations are Atomic and Ordered

The effects of a mutation (its changes to the underlying datastore) and the corresponding update to the lastMutationID must be revealed atomically by the datastore. For example, in a SQL database both changes should be committed as part of the same transaction. If a mutation's effects are not revealed atomically with the update to the client's lastMutationID, then the sync protocol will have undefined and likely mysterious behavior.

Said another way, if the PullResponse indicates that mutation 42 has been processed, then the effects of mutation 42 (and all prior mutations from this client) must be present in the PullResponse. Additionally the effects of mutation 43 (or any higher mutation from this client) must not be present in the PullResponse.

Applying Mutations in Batches

The simplest way to process mutations is to run and commit each mutation and its lastMutationID update in its own transaction. However, for efficiency, you can apply a batch of mutations together and then update the database with their effects and the new lastMutationID in a single transaction. The todo-nextjs sample contains an example of this pattern in push.ts.

Error Handling

If a mutation is invalid or cannot be handled, the server must still mark the mutation as processed by updating the lastMutationID. Otherwise, the client will keep trying to send the mutation and be blocked forever.

If the server knows that the mutation cannot be handled now, but will be able to be handled later (e.g., because some server-side resource is unavailable), the push endpoint can abort processing without updating the lastMutationID. Replicache will consider the server offline and try again later.

For debugging/monitoring/understandability purposes, the server can optionally return an appropriate HTTP error code instead of 200 e.g., HTTP 500 for internal error). However, this is for developer convenience only and has no effect on the sync protocol.


Temporary errors block synchronization and thus should be used carefully. A server should only do this when it definitely will be able to process the mutation later.

Push Launch Checklist

  • Ensure that the lastMutationID for a client is updated transactionally along with the pushed mutations' effects.
  • All mutations with ids less than or equal to the client's current lastMutationID must be ignored.
  • All mutations with ids greater than the client's current lastMutationID+1 must be ignored.
  • Think carefully about your error handling policy. It is possible to deadlock a client if it pushes a mutation that always causes an error that stops processing. No other mutations from that client can make progress in this case. A reasonable default starting point might be along these lines:
    • If a temporary error is encountered that might be resolved on retry, halt processing mutations and return.
    • If a permanent error is encountered such that the mutation will never be appliable, ignore that mutation and increment the lastMutationID as if it were applied.
  • Ignore all PushRequests with an unexpected pushVersion.