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Client View

An easy way to start a Replicache project is to design your Client View schema and start serving it. That's because the Client View is the interface between the client and server — the data that the UI renders, and that the server must provide.

The Client View is a map from string keys to JSON-compatible values. Since we're trying to build a chat app, a simple list of messages is a decent starting point for our schema:

"messages/l2WXAsRlA2Rg47sfGMdAK": {
"from": "Jane",
"order": 1,
"content": "Hey, what's up for lunch?"
"messages/g0Y8yLKobt0BpXwUrVJCK": {
"from": "Fred",
"order": 2,
"content": "Taaaacos"

(A real app would likely separate out the user entities, but this is good enough for our purposes.)

A quick word on IDs

Unlike with classic client/server apps, Replicache apps can't rely on the server to assign unique IDs. That's because the client is going to be working with data long before it reaches the server, and the client and server need a consistent way to refer to items.

Therefore, Replicache requires that clients assign IDs. Our sample apps typically use nanoid for this purpose, but any random ID will work.

Serving the Client View

Now that we know what our schema will look like, let's serve it. Initially, we'll just serve static data, but later we'll build it dynamically from data in the database.

Create a file in the project at server/src/pull.ts with the following contents:

import type {Request, Response, NextFunction} from 'express';

export async function handlePull(
_req: Request,
res: Response,
next: NextFunction,
): Promise<void> {
try {
// We will discuss these two fields in later steps.
lastMutationIDChanges: {},
cookie: 42,
patch: [
{op: 'clear'},
op: 'put',
key: 'message/qpdgkvpb9ao',
value: {
from: 'Jane',
content: "Hey, what's for lunch?",
order: 1,
op: 'put',
key: 'message/5ahljadc408',
value: {
from: 'Fred',
content: 'tacos?',
order: 2,
} catch (e) {

Add the handler to Express modifying the file server/src/main.ts with the route:

import { handlePull } from './pull';
app.use(express.urlencoded({extended: true}), express.json(), errorHandler);'/api/replicache/pull', handlePull);

if (process.env.NODE_ENV === 'production') {

You'll notice the JSON we're serving is a little different than our idealized schema above.

The response from replicache/pull is actually a patch — a series of changes to be applied to the map the client currently has, as a result of changes that have happened on the server. Replicache applies the patch operations one-by-one, in-order, to its existing map. See Pull Endpoint for more details.

Early in development, it's easiest to just return a patch that replaces the entire state with new values, which is what we've done here. Later in this tutorial we will improve this to return only what has changed.


Replicache forks and versions the cache internally, much like Git. You don't have to worry about changes made by the app to the client's map between pulls being clobbered by remote changes via patch. Replicache has a mechanism ensuring that local pending (unpushed) changes are always applied on top of server-provided changes (see Local Mutations).

Also, Replicache is a transactional key/value store. So although the changes are applied one-by-one, they are revealed to your app (and thus to the user) all at once because they're applied within a single transaction.

Start your client and server with cd client && npm run watch, and curl the pull endpoint to ensure it's working:

curl -X POST http://localhost:8080/api/replicache/pull


Next, we'll render our UI from this static Client View.